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    The Aztec calendar

    The Aztec calendar
    On December 17, 1790, the legendary Aztec calendar, called the Piedra del Sol, was opened in Sokalo Square in central Mexico City. It was discovered by workers who were repairing the cathedral in a Mexican city. The stone of the sun is a round slab with a diameter of almost 4 meters and a weight of about 24 tons. Before being buried under the ruins of the ancient Aztec city of Tenochtitlan, the stone was located on top of the city's Central Temple. The first researcher of the artifact is the scientist Antonio de Leon-i-Gama, who is the father of Mexican archeology. The stone monument is not only a cultural monument, but also a kind of account of the Aztec history and the fate of the previous four worlds in which they lived. This is what scientists have come to after a thorough study of the artifact. The stone is made up of four circles, with the sun god Tonatiuh in the center. Around it, the four squares describe the fates of the previous four worlds that preceded the present era, and more specifically how they disappeared. The first world was destroyed by the wind released by the sun. The Second World was populated by giants who were killed by giants sent back from the sun. The Third World was destroyed by the fiery rain that was pouring over the cities. The survivors settled on the island of Aztlan.
    At the end of the fourth era, Aztlan was destroyed by a flood. Those who have escaped move to Tenochtitlan to set the Fifth Sun on. The second round is the Aztec calendar. In structure, it is similar to that of the Maya in that it has the same calendar numbers. There are two different calendar systems - sacred and civic. The sacred system is made up of a cycle of 260 days and is called tonpowal. Used mainly by priests. It is divided into 20 periods with 13 days each with a hieroglyphic name. The second system includes 365 days that coincide with our idea today of a calendar year or the time the Earth orbits the Sun. It's called hiupowali or hiwittle. It contains 18 periods of 20 days each and one final period of 5 days, which were considered unhappy. Every 52 years, the civic calendar coincides with saints, which also marks the end of an Aztec century. It is believed that then the new sun was born. The third round consists of squares of five points, which symbolize the five days of the week. The circle is divided by eight rays that are thought to be the rays of the sun that show the directions of the world. The fourth outermost circle is the two Shukoatl fire snakes that meet face to face at the bottom of the disc. One snake is half black and the other half half, which symbolizes the duality of the day (day and night / darkness and light). The body of each of the serpents is painted to symbolize the 52 years that make up one century
    Today, the Stone of the Sun is housed in the National Museum of Anthropology and History at Chapultepec Park in Mexico City.

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