Bulgaria during Asparoukh

Bulgaria during Asparoukh 

It was originally occupied the lands of today's northeastern and northern Bulgaria, Dobrudja and land northeast of the lower Danube . Establishment and recognition of the new state were widely covered in the seventh century Even in the ninth century Patriarch Nicephorus and Theophanes Confessor, which are the main sources for the events of 680-681 on with great sorrow and pain written shameful defeat of Byzantium by the Bulgarians. This is not an accident - Asparoukh forced Emperor Constantine IV not only to recognize Bulgaria , but also to pay her annual tax; this tax depending Empire maintained until 966

Intervention by the case in Europe

How it came to the only event in Europe in the lands of a living empire - in the case of the Eastern Roman Empire or as it was known at all, Byzantium , to create an independent state , to withstand the vicissitudes of time and survive to this day ? In V and VI century the Bulgarians are already well known to the Byzantine chroniclers . At first they were subject to the Huns , which together first , and then - alone attacked the lands of Byzantium. Then Bulgarian tribes inhabited the steppes of the northern and eastern coast, the land north of the Caucasus and the steppes near the Sea of Azov. In the middle of the sixth century in the lower reaches of the River Don appeared Avars , whose tribal union in the lands of present-day Mongolia was destroyed by the Turks . In their motion to the east , they settled in Pannonia , and carried away with myself and some of the Bulgarian tribes. From the east , however, occurred Turks . Bulgarians and Khazars resisted but eventually accepted their sovereignty while maintaining its internal autonomy. - It probably happened around 570 So Bulgarian tribes found themselves on the fringes of a huge state formation extending from China to Europe. Perhaps then it is considered as an 12 -year-old calendar, Turkic military-administrative system and titulatura and arrangement of the army of the center , left and right wing. Ultimately khaganate resorted be divided into East and West , and in 630-631 in the Western Turkic Khaganate broken acute dynastic crisis. She fought between tribes and Nushibi Duluth . The first tribe is in direct relation to the first rulers of Bulgaria , who were like Duluth . Supporters of Duluth became Bulgarians , and Nushibi - gambling. From that time dates the enmity between the two peoples . Using the crisis , the ruler of the Bulgarians - unogonduri - Kubrat, proclaimed himself an independent ruler . This was around 631-633 , his country is known as the springs Old Great Bulgaria and cover the lands near the Azov Sea and the North Pontic region of the Dnieper . This is the first country known as Bulgaria . It is named that way in the Byzantine chronicles .

Khan KubratKhan Kubrat

Khan Kubrat died at 650-655 , he had five sons who actually ruled by semi-independent different parts of the country and had under his authority various Bulgarian tribes. After the death of pitcher probably dynastic crisis broke out , resulting in each of his sons took their own decision about their subjects. The biggest - Bayan left in Old Great Bulgaria . The second son , Kotrag passed Don with Bulgarian sword of Khan Kubrat Kutriguri tribe and settled on the lands of his brother. The fourth and fifth son - Kuber and Altsek , headed west and settled in an emergency. Altsek too soon separated from them and settled first in North and later in southern Italy . The sword of Khan KubratThat is why in this country there are many local names and surnames as Bolgar , Bolgheri , Borger . Such a step done and Kuber ; about 683-685 , it is separated from the Avars and created the second Bulgaria on the Balkan Peninsula , on the lands of today's " country" Macedonia. Third son - Asparukh was head of the tribe, directly called in the sources " Bulgarians" , as well as part of unogondurite - tribe , who owns his great father Khan Kubrat . He crossed the Don, Dnieper and Dniester and settled in October 665-670 , the north of the Danube Delta as the center of the country became a place known as " Ongal ." There are various explanations for the etymology of the word. It is in direct contact with the Slavic "angle " is close to the word " aul " and Mongolian " ongolo " which means " bend in the river ." All three etymologies target area locked between the Black Sea from the east bend of the river before the confluence of the river into the sea from the south and the currents of the rivers Gold belt of Khan KubratPrut and Siret west . In this area there are numerous earthworks equipment - shafts and bearings earthworks that seem the work of Bulgarians Asparoukh . Too soon the Bulgarian ruler joined the territory of the state and part of the North Dobrogea , while attacks began and much of the south. Then came the clash with Byzantium . Part of the territory occupied by the Bulgarians falls within the territory of the Byzantine province of Scythia . Although cities and towns here have long been abandoned by its inhabitants because of numerous Avar and Slavic invasions, these were lands of the Eastern Roman Empire. This is what provoked the great march of Emperor Constantine IV against the Bulgarians in 680 There is one very important fact that has long been known , but not among the general reader . In 674-678 , the capital of the empire of Constantinople was besieged by the Arabs. It was a very tough challenge for Byzantium , which she overcame brilliantly. In 678 , the Byzantine army inflicted a crushing defeat of the Arabs in Lycia , and the Arab fleet suffered a great shipwreck at Cape strong, off the coast of Pamphylia . Arab caliph Moab placed literally on his knees of these events are forced into a humiliating peace with Byzantium , being required to pay an annual tax of the empire. This made a lasting impression in Europe. Not only independent Slavic tribes , but even the great Avar Kagan ( the title means " Khan of Khans" , " HR Khan " ) is so awesome power of the Byzantine Empire that began to pay tax like the Arabs. At this point , in 678-680 , when the empire was at the height of his power, Bulgarians settled in its lands . It was a massive blow to the prestige and aura of invincibility of Byzantium , which she rightly gained in the war with the Arabs . Therefore, the reaction of Constantine IV was so sharp - the head of the entire Byzantine army and navy , he headed to the mouth of the river. Main Bulgarian fortress was besieged and within few days they waged war . Then Constantine IV received a severe attack of gout , and therefore gave directions to his generals and the boat returned to Mesambria . This upset the Byzantine army and suffered a rumor according to which the emperor fled . That is why the army was disorganized and began to withdraw . Using this time , the Bulgarians attacked and inflicted a complete defeat of the Imperial Army. In pursuing its Asparoukh crossed the Danube and stopped " in Varna, close to Odesos ." This battle took place in the summer of 680 in the spring of 681 Bulgarian troops invaded Thrace. Emperor Constantine IV is not continued the war - it seems that the defeat of the previous year was actually disastrous for his army . So he made peace , according to which the obligation to pay tax in Bulgaria - the same tax, which for more than a century Byzantium payment of Avar Khaganate . You should know that Constantine IV in no case was a coward. In 678 , he personally led the defense of Constantinople by the Arabs. So it's more likely he has trusted in his huge army and believed absolutely in his victory , so he decided to withdraw to heal. Year of the conclusion of peace between Byzantium and Bulgaria Year of the conclusion of peace between Byzantium and Bulgaria are known with precision thanks to one of the protocols of the Sixth Ecumenical Council , which was held in 680-681 On August 9 , the word took 681 Syrian presbyter Constantine Apameyski . Here's what he says at the beginning of his speech : " I came to your holy convocation to you learn that if I had heard, would not suffer what we suffered in the war with Bulgaria." So peace with the Bulgarians was signed in May-July period 681 Significantly, presbyter Constantine called direct new country " Bulgaria " . That is, the Byzantines are considered new neighbors bearers of state tradition . This is quite normal , because many years before 681, chronicles explicitly talk about the state of Bulgaria . This happens whenever the chroniclers wrote about Khan Kubrat and Old Great Bulgaria . So in 681, the Eastern Roman Empire recognized the existence of old Kubrat Bulgaria , but now the territory of Byzantium.


Such was the beginning of Danubian Bulgaria - heir of Old Great Bulgaria Khan Kubrat . This is the oldest country in Europe that has remained unchanged its name from its founding to the present day .


                                                                                                                          Bulgaria during Asparoukh 


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