November 10, 1989. Beginning of Bulgaria's transition to democracy. Chronology of events.

November 10, 1989. Beginning of Bulgaria's transition to democracy. Chronology of events. 

On November 10, 1989, just hours after being opened Berlin Wall on November 9, convened plenum of the Central Committee (CC) of the Bulgarian Communist Party (BCP). The official announcement of the two decisions of the plenum is that "meets the request of Comrade Todor Zhivkov be removed as general secretary and member of the Politburo of the Communist Party" and expressed his "deep appreciation for the dedicated work long in the service of the Party and the people ". Available in the National Assembly to grant his request for release as Chairman of the State Council of the People's Republic of Bulgaria. Another solution is that "elected General Secretary of the Central Committee of the Communist Party Comrade Peter Mladenov." Tacit news for downloading toured the country in minutes. First spread the Sofia University to 17.00 hours before all newsstands appear unprecedented, huge lines of people waiting to buy the evening edition and read the news in black and white. On 17 November 1989 a session of the ninth National Assembly Todor Zhivkov is released by the office of President of the State Council. In this position he was elected Petar Mladenov. The National Assembly is set up for the preparation of a draft constitutional amendment. Cancelled is art. 273 of the Penal Code, adopted in 1968, they were convicted people sent protest letters spread slogans, flyers, and prohibited dissident literature written protest signs. Recognized the freedom of opinion and pardoning those convicted under this section. Changes have been made in the composition of State and Council of Ministers. The square in front of the National Assembly shall hold a rally in support of the changes. On November 18 called. informal groups led by CT "Support" and "Ecoglasnost" organized the first free rally outside the church "St. Alexander Nevski" cathedral in Sofia. The main speakers of it are Zhelev, Blaga Dimitrova Radoi Ralin, Angel Wagenstein, Rumen Vodenicharov, Alexander Karakachanov Stefan Prodev and others. On December 7, 1989 created UDF - Union of Democratic Forces - a coalition of newly established political parties and organizations. On December 14, 1989 rally outside Parliament calls for the immediate lifting of Art. 1 of the Constitution, which guarantees the leadership of the Communist Party. On 29 December 1989 the Politburo of the Communist Party declared the right of the Bulgarian Muslims to restore their traditional names lost their force in the so-called. regenerative process. On 3 and 4 January 1990 in Sofia kept prior consultation between the opposition and the leadership of the Communist Party to convene a "roundtable" that will outline the framework of peaceful transition. "Roundtable" session from 16 January to 15 May 1990, the arrangements for the political system, amendments to the Constitution, the laws on political parties and elections for a Grand National Assembly (GNA). It was decided to close the institution, the State Council, the president (chairman) of the Republic to be elected by the National Assembly to set election days - 10 and 17 June 1990 While still talks about "round table" on January 15, 1990 the National Assembly voted to repeal Article 1, paragraph 2 and 3 of the Constitution of the People's Republic, which lays down the principles for the leadership of the Communist Party. On January 18 issued an order for the arrest of Todor Zhivkov and other leaders of the old regime, accused of inciting national hatred. At an extraordinary congress - from January 30 to February 2, 1990 PA elected chairman of the Supreme Council of the party and accepts Alexander Lilov Manifesto for democratic socialism in Bulgaria, and a new charter of the party. On February 1, 1990 Georgi Atanasov resigned as prime minister. Done government under Prime Minister Andrei Lukanov. On February 9, 1990 issue of the trial comes the body of the UDF - newspaper "Democracy". The first political party registered under the Act for persons and families of 15 February 1990 is the Green Party, founded on December 28, 1989 On 3 April 1990 the National Assembly elected president Petar Mladenov (President) of Bulgaria. The same day the BCP was renamed the Bulgarian Socialist Party (BSP) and the authority of the Communist Party newspaper "Worker's case" was renamed to "Duma". On 10 April 1990 entered into force the Law on Political Parties, enable over 20 years in the country to register more than 400 parties. On April 26, 1990 released the first private weekly - newspaper "168 Hours" and on April 28 was established First Private Bank. Elections for the seventh Grand National Assembly (GNA) on 10 and 17 June 1990 were won by the BSP. UDF challenged the results and began protests that led to the overthrow of President Petar Mladenov. He resigned on July 6, 1990, under pressure from public protests over election clip emitted in the UDF his phrase, spoken in front of the National Assembly on December 14, 1989, during a rally for the repeal of this Constitution Article 1 " Better tanks to come. " On 1 August 1990 the Grand National Assembly elected Dr. Zhelev president of NRB. President-elect Dr. Zhelev repealed ordinance limiting temporary residence in Sofia and other cities. On August 26, 1990 in mysterious circumstances was set on fire the Party House in Sofia. Before that - on Aug. 22, GNA accepted the resignation of the government of Andrei Lukanov, and again on Aug. 30 to elect a prime minister and assigns him to a cabinet. Andrei Lukanov government under pressure from the general nationwide strike declared by Labour "Support" resigned to taking GNA November 30, 1990 Done government under Prime Minister Dimitar Popov - the first coalition government in the recent history of Bulgaria. The state no longer administratively determined prices, they grow rapidly and reach emblematic appeal of Premiere: "My God, my brothers, do not buy." Inflation reached almost 500%. On 22 December 1990 the Grand National Assembly adopts a resolution, which expresses the will of Bulgaria's accession to the European Communities and the Government proposes to take necessary steps in this direction. You can take more than 15 years to realize this desire for inclusion to the European family. On January 1, 2007 Bulgaria became a full member of the European Union. In February 1991 the trial began Todor Zhivkov and Milko Balev. Zhivkov was accused for the period from 1962 to November 10, 1989 as First Secretary and General Secretary of the Central Committee, Chairman of the Council of Ministers and Chairman of the State Council has exceeded its authority and rights to provide for himself and benefit to others 26,516,039 lev charge against Milko Balev is that during 1978-1986, through the use of false documents by various publishers received no ground lev 39,392 On September 4, 1992 Todor Zhivkov was sentenced to seven years prison svobada and Milko Balev 2 years. On February 9, 1996 they were acquitted. The first direct presidential elections in Bulgaria on 12 and 19 January 1992 Dr. Zhelev was elected president five-year term. The new Constitution of the Republic of Bulgaria adopted by the Grand National Assembly on July 12, 1991 Previously on May 14, 1991 39 members of the UDF and leave plenary hunger strike as a sign of disagreement with the draft Constitution. In a statement, they insisted Grand National Assembly to dissolve itself and be scheduled new elections. On 23 July 1991 protesters return to parliament. The new basic law of the country of Bulgaria is a republic with a parliamentary form of government. It is a unitary state, which does not allow autonomous territorial formations. The Constitution sets out the basic principles underpinning the political system of society - political pluralism, separation of powers into legislative, executive and judicial. For the period from 10 November 1989 until now in Bulgaria constituted one and six Grand National meeting (36 th to 41 th). The country is ruled by 12 prime ministers - Andrei Lukanov, Dimitar Popov, Philip Dimitrov, Luben Berov, Reneta Indzhova, Zhan Videnov, Stefan Sofiyanski, Ivan Kostov, Simeon Sakskoburggotski, Sergey Stanishev and the current Prime Minister Boyko Borisov.

According to the BTA.


Todor Zhivkov - Statement November 1989



Understand the character of the one who speaks (a communist) and what it says - that everything he says is true? Share your opinion - you who have experienced this, it is, more than 25 years.

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